University of Manchester
American Studies Programme
Autumn 2003

AM 3011: American Masculinities
Course Unit Director: Dr Natalie Zacek


By the end of the course unit, the successful student will have demonstrated:

The course will examine the development and deployment of masculine identities in America from 1800 onwards. It will look at the social, political, cultural, and economic underpinnings of male roles, and their relation to the formation of American culture, in a number of historical eras. Issues to be addressed will include race, region, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and popular culture, and the course will utilise written texts, visual culture, film, and music.

The basic textbooks for the course are E. Anthony Rotundo’s American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era and Susan Faludi’s Stiffed: The Betrayal of Modern Man. Both are available for purchase at Blackwell's bookstore in the Precinct Centre or from Amazon.

Teaching method
One two-hour seminar per week.

Contacting me
My office is located in Room N.2.8 of the Arts Faculty Building, and my office hours are posted on the door. You can also contact me by phone at 275-7073, by e-mail at, or by leaving a notice in my pigeonhole in the American Studies office.

Assessment By coursework (one 2,500-word essay) (50%) and 2-hour written examination (50%).


All texts are available in the Short Loan Collection of the JRUL, with the exception of those marked (X) for items available from lecturer or (OL) for items available on-line.

Week 1 Introduction: theorising masculinity
R.W. Connell, “The Social Organization of Masculinity,” in Stephen Whitehead and Frank Barrett, eds., The Masculinities Reader
Nancy F. Cott, “Men’s History and Women’s History,” in Mark Carnes and Clyde Griffen, eds., Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America
E. Anthony Rotundo, “Introduction,” in Rotundo, American Manhood
Week 2 Patriarchs and prodigals: the memory and meaning of the American Revolution
Ruth Bloch, “The Gendered Meaning of Virtue in Revolutionary America,” Signs 13 (1987): 37-58 (OL)
Wayne Bodle, “Soldiers in Love: Patrolling the Gendered Frontiers of the Early Republic,” in Merril D. Smith, ed., Sex and Sexuality in Early America
Ellen Carol DuBois, “Outgrowing the Compact of the Fathers: Equal Rights, Woman Suffrage, and the United States Constitution, 1820-1878,” Journal of American History 74 (1987): 836-862 (OL)
Jay Fliegelman, "George Washington and the Reconstituted Family," in Fliegelman, Prodigals and Pilgrims: The American Revolution Against Patriarchal Authority
Joanne B. Freeman, “Dueling as Politics: Reinterpreting the Burr-Hamilton Duel,” William and Mary Quarterly 53 (1996): 289-318 (OL)
Joan R. Gundersen, “Independence, Citizenship, and the American Revolution,” Signs 13 (1987): 59-76 (OL)
Mark E. Kann, “The Founders’ Gendered Legacy,” in Kann, A Republic of Men: The American Founders, Gendered Language, and Patriarchal Politics
Linda Kerber, "The Inheritance of the Enlightenment," in Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America
Jesse Lemisch, "Jack Tar in the Streets: Merchant Seamen in the Politics of Revolutionary America," William and Mary Quarterly 25 (1968): 371-407 (OL)
Jan Lewis, “’The Blessings of Domestic Society’: Thomas Jefferson’s Family and the Transformation of American Politics,” in Peter Onuf, ed., Jeffersonian Legacies (X)
Jan Lewis, “The Republican Wife: Virtue and Seduction in the Early Republic,” William and Mary Quarterly 44 (1987): 689-721 (OL)
Janet Moore Lindman, “Acting the Manly Christian: White Evangelical Masculinity in Revolutionary Virginia,” William and Mary Quarterly 57 (2000), 393-416 (OL)
Michael Rogin, “Andrew Jackson: The Family Romance,” in Rogin, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Destruction of the American Indian
Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “Coquettes and Revolutionaries in Early America," in Elaine Scarry, ed., Literature and the Body
Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “Dis-Covering the Subject of the ‘Great Constitutional Discussion’," Journal of American History 79 (1992): 841-873 (OL)
Mason Weems, “The Character of Washington,” in Weems, The Life of Washington
Alfred Young, “George Robert Twelves Hewes: A Boston Shoemaker and the Memory of the American Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly 38 (1981): 561-623 (OL)
Rosemarie Zagarri, “The Rights of Men and Women in Post-Revolutionary America,”William and Mary Quarterly 55 (1998):203-230 (OL)
Week 3 Chants democratic: masculinity and class formation in the early American republic
Patricia Cline Cohen, “Unregulated Youths: Masculinity and Murder in the 1830s City,” Radical History Review 52 (1992): 33-52
Susan Davis, “’Making Night Hideous’: Christmas Revelry and Public Disorder in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia,” American Quarterly 34 (1982); 185-199
Toby L. Ditz, “Shipwrecked, or, Masculinity Imperiled: Mercantile Representations of Failure and the Gendered Self in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia,” Journal of American History 81(1994): 51-80 (OL)
Nicole Etcheson, “Manliness and the Political Culture of the Old Northwest, 1790-1860,” Journal of the Early Republic 15 (1995): 59-77
Karen Halttunen, "The Era of the Confidence Man," in Halttunen, Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle Class Culture in America
Karen Hansen, “’Our Eyes Beheld Each Other’: Masculinity and Intimate Friendship in Antebellum New England,” in Peter Nardi, ed., Men’s Friendships
Nathaniel Hawthorne, My Kinsman, Major Molineux
Paul E. Johnson, “The Modernization of Mayo Greenleaf Patch: Land, Family, and Marginality in New England, 1766-1818,” New England Quarterly 55 (1982): 488-516 (OL)
Herman Melville, Bartleby the Scrivener
Mary P. Ryan, "Privacy and the Making of the Self-Made Man," in Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790-1865
Asa Sheldon, Yankee Drover: Being the Unpretending Life of Asa Sheldon, Farmer, Trader, and Working Man, 1788-1870
Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and Ritual,” in Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America
Sean Wilentz, "Artisan Republicanism," in Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Formation of the American Working Class, 1788-1850
Week 4 Go west, young man: putting the “man” in “manifest destiny”
Durwood Ball, “Cool to the End: Public Hangings and Western Manhood,” in Matthew Basso, et al., eds., Across the Great Divide : Cultures of Manhood in the American West
Dee Brown, “Standing Bear Becomes a Person,” in Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West
Joan Cashin, "In Search of Manly Independence" and "To Live Like Fighting Cocks," in Cashin, A Family Venture: Men and Women on the Southern Frontier
Edward Curtis, The North American Indians
Robert Murray Davis, “The Virginian: Inventing the Westerner,” in Davis, Playing Cowboys: Low Culture and High Art in the Western
Philip Deloria, “Fraternal Indians and Republican Identities,” in Deloria, Playing Indian
Leonard Dykstra, "The Adjustment to Violence," in Dykstra, The Cattle Towns
John Mack Faragher, "Masculine Men and Feminine Women," in Faragher, Women and Men on the Overland Trail
Mary Jemison, Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison
Susan Lee Johnson, “Bulls, Bears, and Dancing Boys: Race, Gender, and Leisure in the California Gold Rush,” in Matthew Basso, et al., eds., Across the Great Divide: Cultures of Manhood in the American West
Brian Klopotek, “’I Guess Your Warrior Look Doesn’t Work Every Time’: Challenging Indian Masculinity in the Cinema,” in Matthew Basso, et al., eds., Across the Great Divide: Cultures of Manhood in the American West
Patricia Nelson Limerick, "The Persistence of Natives," in Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West
Michael Rogin, Fathers and Children, part 2
William Roscoe, “’Strange Country This’: An Introduction to North American Gender Diversity,” in Roscoe, Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America
Henry Nash Smith, "Book Two: The Sons of Leatherstocking," in Nash, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth
Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “Davy Crockett as Trickster,” in Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America
Jane Tompkins, “Women and the Language of Men,” in Tompkins, West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns
Peter Van Lent, “’Her Beautiful Savage’: The Current Sexual Image of the Native American Male,” in S. Elizabeth Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture
Walter L. Williams, "Seafarers, Cowboys, and Indians: Male Marriage in Fringe Societies on the Anglo-American Frontier," in Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture
Week 5 Am I not a man and a brother?: the making of black manhood
Derrick Bell, “The Race-Charged Relationship of Black Men and Black Women,” in Maurice Berger, et al., eds., Constructing Masculinity
John Blassingame, “The Slave Family,” in Blassingame, The Slave Community Blues lyrics
Hazel Carby, “The Souls of Black Men,” in Carby, Race Men
Jim Cullen, “’I’s a Man Now’: Gender and African-American Men,” in Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, eds., Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War
Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom
W.E.B. DuBois, "Of the Training of Black Men," in DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk
Frantz Fanon, "The Fact of Blackness," in Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks
John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger, “Profile of a Runaway,” in Franklin and Schweninger, Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation
Martha Hodes, “Murder,” in Hodes, White Women, Black Men: Illicit Sex in the Nineteenth-Century South
James Horton, “Freedom’s Yoke: Gender Conventions Among Antebellum Free Blacks,” Feminist Studies 12 (1986): 51-76 (OL)
Larry E. Hudson, Jr., ed., Working Toward Freedom: Slave Society and Domestic Economy in the American South
Robin D.G. Kelley, "Confessions of a Nice Negro, or Why I Shaved My Head," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom, pt. 6
Norman Mailer, “The White Negro," in Mailer, Advertisements For Myself
Stephanie McCurry, “The Two Faces of Republicanism: Gender and Proslavery Politics,” Journal of American History 78 (1992): 1245-1264 (OL)
James Mellon, Bullwhip Days: The Slaves Remember
Kobena Mercer, “Reading Racial Fetishism: The Photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe,” in Mercer, Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
William L. VanDeburg, “Cyril Briggs and the African Blood Brotherhood,” in VanDeburg, Modern Black Nationalism from Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan
Michele Wallace, “Masculinity in Black Popular Culture,” in Maurice Berger et al., eds., Constructing Masculinity
Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery
Shane White, “The Death of James Johnson," American Quarterly 51 (1999): 753-795 (OL)
Marcus Wood, Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America, 1780-1865
Bertram Wyatt-Brown, “The Mask of Obedience: Male Slave Psychology in the Old South,” American Historical Review 93 (1988): 1228-1252 (OL)
Week 6 NO MEETING (Reading Week)
Week 7 Arms and the man: masculinity and warfare
Julie Addelston and Michael Stirratt, "The Last Bastion of Masculinity: Gender Politics at the Citadel," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Beth Bailey and David Farber, "Culture of Heroes," in Bailey and Farber, The First Strange Place: The Alchemy of Race and Sex in World War II Hawaii
Gail Bederman, “Remaking Manhood through Race and ‘Civilization’,” in Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917
David W. Blight, “No Desperate Hero: Manhood and Freedom in a Union Soldier’s Experience,” in Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber, eds., Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War
Allan M. Brandt, “’The Cleanest Army in the World’: Venereal Disease and the AEF,” in Brandy, No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880
Joan Cashin, “’Since the War Broke Out’: The Marriage of Kate and William McLure,” in Clinton and Silber, Divided Houses
Frank Costigliola, “’Unceasing Pressure for Penetration’: Gender, Pathology, and Emotion in George Kennan’s Formation of the Cold War,” Journal of American History 83 (1997): 1309-1339
Cynthia Enloe, “Nationalism and Masculinity,” in Enloe, Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics
Kristin Hoganson, Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars
Tony Horwitz, "Confederates in the Attic" and "The Civil Wargasm," in Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War
David Kennedy, Over Here: The First World War and American Society
James McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, chs. 1-2
Reid Mitchell, "Soldiering, Manhood, and Coming of Age," in Mitchell, The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home
Studs Terkel, The Good War: An Oral History of World War II
Wallace Terry, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans
Walt Whitman poems
Bell Irvin Wiley, “Billy Yank and Johnny Reb,” in Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank
Week 8 Men at work and out of work: masculinity and employment
James Agee and Walker Evans, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men
Ava Baron, “An ‘Other’ Side of Gender Antagonism at Work: Men, Boys, and the Remasculinization of Printers’ Work,” in Baron, Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor
Susan Porter Benson, “The Clerking Sisterhood,” in Benson, Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1930
Mary H. Blewett, “Manhood and the Market,” in Ava Baron, Work Engendered: Toward a New History of American Labor
Patricia Cooper, “The Workday of a Union Man,” in Cooper, Once a Cigar Maker: Men, Women, and Work Culture in American Cigar Factories, 1900-1919
Margaret Creighton, “Sailors, Sweethearts, and Wives: Gender and Sex in the Deep-water Workplace,” in Creighton, Rites and Passages: The Experience of American Whaling, 1830-1870(X)
Leon Fink, “Working-Class Radicalism in the Gilded Age,” in Fink, Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics
Woody Guthrie lyrics
Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, et al., "From the Cradle to the Grave," in Hall, et al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World
Judy Hilkey, “Manhood is Everything,” in Hilkey, Character is Capital: Success Manuals and Manhood in Gilded Age America
Lewis Hine, America
Dolores Janiewski, “Southern Honor, Southern Dishonor: Managerial Ideology and the Construction of Gender, Class, and Race Relations in Southern Industry,” in Ava Baron, ed., Work Engendered
G.L. Kaster, “Labour’s True Man: Organised Workingmen and the Language of Manliness in the USA, 1827-1877,” Gender and History 13 (2001): 24-64
Angel Kwollek-Folland, “Gender, Self, and Work in the Life Insurance Industry, 1880-1930,” in Ava Baron, ed., Work Engendered
David Montgomery, “Wage Labor, Bondage, and Citizenship,” in Montgomery, Citizen Worker: The Experience of Workers in the United States
Stephen H. Norwood, Strikebreaking and Intimidation
David Perlmutter, Policing the Media: Street Cops and Public Perceptions of Law Enforcement
Jennifer Pierce, "Rambo Litigators: Emotional Labor in a Male-Dominated Occupation," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Don Snyder, The Cliff Walk (X)
John Taylor, "Charlie Atkins and the Glamour of Investment Banking," and “John Gutfreund and the Cult of Ruthlessness,” in Taylor, Circus of Ambition: The Culture of Wealth and Power in the Eighties (X)
Studs Terkel, Working
Carole Turbin, “Fashioning the American Man: The Arrow Collar Man, 1907-1931,” Gender and History 14 (2002): 470-491
William H. Whyte, The Organization Man
Sloan Wilson, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
Week 9 Homo ludens: masculinity and leisure
Kathleen M. Blee, Women of the Klan, ch. 1
Lisa Bloom, “Nationalism on Ice: Technology and Masculinity at the North Pole,” in Bloom, Gender on Ice: American Ideologies of Polar Expeditions(X)
Mark Carnes, Secret Ritual and Victorian Manhood, prologue
Elliott J. Gorn, "The Meanings of Prize Fighting," in Gorn, The Manly Art: Bare Knuckle Prize Fighting in America
Kenneth Greenberg, “The Nose, the Lie, and the Duel,” in Greenberg, Honor and Slavery
John Kasson, Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century, pp. 37-54
John Kasson, “Who is the Perfect Man?: Eugene Sandow and a New Standard for America,” in Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America (X)
Bernard Lefkowitz, Our Guys: The Glen Ridge Rape Case and the Secret Life of the Perfect American Suburb (X)
Norman Mailer, The Fight
Margaret Marsh, “Suburban Men and Masculine Domesticity, 1870-1915,” in Mark Carnes and Clyde Griffen, eds., Meanings for Manhood
R.D. McBee, “’He Likes Women More Than He Likes Drink, and That is Quite Unusual’: Working-Class Social Clubs, Male Culture, and Heterosocial Relations in the United States, 1920s-1930s,” Gender and History 11 (1999): 84-112
Michael A. Messner, "Boyhood, Organized Sports, and the Construction of Masculinities," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Jonathan Munby, Public Enemies, Public Heroes: Screening the Gangster
Ted Ownby, Subduing Satan: Religion, Recreation, and Manhood in the Rural South, 1865-1920 (X)
Kathy Peiss, “The Homosocial World of Working-Class Amusements,” in Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York (X)
Madelon Powers, Faces Along the Bar: Lore and Order in the Workingman’s Saloon, 1870-1920, ch.2 (X)
Steven Riess, Touching Base: Professional Baseball and American Culture in the Progressive Era, ch. 7
Kim Townsend, “Teaching Men Manhood at Harvard,” in Townsend, Manhood at Harvard
Bertram Wyatt-Brown, "Personal Strategies and Community Life: Hospitality, Gambling, and Combat," in Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South
Week 10 Queer and now: masculinity and homosexuality
Tomas Almaguer, "Chicano Men: A Cartography of Homosexual Identity and Behavior," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Donald C. Barrett, “Masculinity Among Working-Class Gay Males,” in Peter M. Nardi, ed., Gay Masculinities
Allan Berube, “Marching to a Different Drummer: Lesbian and Gay GIs in World War II,” in Martin Bauml Duberman, et al., eds., Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past
Clifford Chase, "Outtakes," in Chase, ed., Queer 13: Lesbian and Gay Writers Recall Seventh Grade (X)
George Chauncey, “Introduction,” in Chauncey, Gay New York
John D’Emilio, “Forging a Group Identity,” in D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority
Alexander Doty, “The Gay Straight Man,” in Doty, Making Things Perfectly Queer: Interpreting Mass Culture
Jeffrey Escoffier, American Homo: Community and Perversity, chs. 1-2
Richard Fung, "Looking For My Penis: The Eroticized Asian in Gay Video Porn," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
William G. Hawkeswood, “’Gay is Lovin’ Men’,” in Hawkeswood, One of the Children: Gay Black Men in Harlem
John Howard, Men Like That: A Southern Queer History, introduction and ch. 1
Jonathan Ned Katz, “No Two Men Were Ever More Intimate,” in Katz, Love Stories: Sex Between Men Before Homosexuality
Martin P. Levine, "The Life and Death of Gay Clones," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Kobena Mercer, “Dark & Lovely: Black Gay Image-Making,” in Mercer, Welcome to The Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies
Paul Monette, Borrowed Time: An AIDS Memoir
Stephen Murray, “The Growth and Diversification of Gay Culture,” in Murray, American Gay
Peter M. Nardi, Growing Up Before Stonewall, pt. 2
Randy Shilts, “Glory Days,” in Shilts, And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic
Randy Shilts, “The Years Without Hope,” in Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk
Martha Nell Smith, “Sexual Mobilities in Bruce Springsteen,” in Anthony DeCurtis, ed., Present Tense (X)
Siobhan Somerville, “Scientific Racism and the Invention of the Homosexual Body,” in Somerville, Queering the Color Line: Race and the Invention of Homosexuality in America
Angelia Wilson, “Conditional Love,” in Wilson, Below the Belt: Sexuality, Religion, and the American South
Week 11 What kind of a man are you?: masculinity and subcultures
Jack Henry Abbott, In the Belly of the Beast
Harry Brod, "Of Mice and Supermen: Images of Jewish Masculinity," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Rich Cohen, "Nate'n'Al's," in Cohen, Tough Jews: Fathers, Sons, and Gangster Dreams (X)
Scott Coltrane, "Stability and Change in Chicano Men's Lives," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Yen Le Espiritu, "All Men Are Not Created Equal: Asian Men in U.S. History," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Marjorie Garber, "The Transvestite Continuum: Liberace--Valentino--Elvis," in Garber, Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety
Dick Hebdige, Subculture: The Meaning of Style
Ronald Hutton, "Uncle Sam and the Goddess," in Hutton, The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft
Michael S. Kimmel and Michael Kaufman, “Weekend Warriors: The New Men’s Movement,” in Harry Broad and Michael Kaufman
Jose E. Limon, “Tex-Sex-Mex: American Identities, Lone Stars, and the Politics of Racialized Sexuality,” in Matthew Basso, et al., eds., Across the Great Divide: Cultures of Manhood in the American West
Annette Lynch, “It Was Style with a Capital’S’: Versions of Being Male Presented at The Beautillion Ball,” in Lynch, Dress, Gender, and Cultural Change: Asian American and African American Rites of Passage
Alfredo Mirande, “Latino Men and Masculinity : An Overview,” in Mirande, Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture
Esther Newton, Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America
Michael Schwalbe, "Mythopoetic Men's Work as a Search for Communitas," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds., Men's Lives
Dana Y. Takagi, “Maiden Voyage,” in Russell Leong, ed., Asian-American Sexualities
Tom Wolfe, "The Hair Boys," in Wolfe, The Pump House Gang
Maxine Baca Zinn, "Chicano Men and Masculinity," in Michael Kimmel and Michael A. Messner, eds, Men's Lives
Week 12 Stiffed?
Susan Faludi, Stiffed: The Betrayal of the Modern Man

[AM3011 Assessed Essay]

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